Tests can be conducted based on two approaches –
● Functionality testing
● Implementation testing
When functionality is being tested without taking the actual implementation in concern it is known as black-box testing. The other side is known as white-box testing where not only functionality is tested but the way it is implemented is also analyzed.
Exhaustive tests are the best-desired method for a perfect testing. Every single possible value in the range of the input and output values is tested. It is not possible to test each and every value in real world scenario if the range of values is large.
It is carried out to test functionality of the program. It is also called ‘Behavioral’ testing. The tester in this case, has a set of input values and respective desired results. On providing input, if the output matches with the desired results, the program is tested ‘ok’, and problematic otherwise.
In this testing method, the design and structure of the code are not known to the tester, and testing engineers and end users conduct this test on the software.
Black-box testing techniques:
● Equivalence class – The input is divided into similar classes. If one element of a class passes the test, it is assumed that all the class is passed.
● Boundary values – The input is divided into higher and lower end values. If these values pass the test, it is assumed that all values in between may pass too.
● Cause-effect graphing – In both previous methods, only one input value at a time is tested. Cause (input) – Effect (output) is a testing technique where combinations of input values are tested in a systematic way.
● Pair-wise Testing – The behavior of software depends on multiple parameters. In pairwise testing, the multiple parameters are tested pair-wise for their different values.
● State-based testing – The system changes state on provision of input. These systems are tested based on their states and input.
It is conducted to test program and its implementation, in order to improve code efficiency or structure. It is also known as ‘Structural’ testing.
In this testing method, the design and structure of the code are known to the tester. Programmers of the code conduct this test on the code.
The below are some White-box testing techniques:
● Control-flow testing – The purpose of the control-flow testing to set up test cases which covers all statements and branch conditions. The branch conditions are tested for both being true and false, so that all statements can be covered.
● Data-flow testing – This testing technique emphasis to cover all the data variables included in the program. It tests where the variables were declared and defined and where they were used or changed.